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Danh sách các bài báo quốc tế năm 2013

1. Maia A. Rabaa, Cameron P. Simmons, Annette Fox, Lê Quỳnh Mai,  Nguyễn Thị Thu Thủy, Hai Yen Le,Robert V. Gibbons, Xuyen Thanh Nguyen, Edward C. Holmes, John G. Aaskov. Dengue Virus in Sub-tropical Northern and Central Viet Nam: Population Immunity and Climate Shape Patterns of Viral Invasion and Maintenance.PLoS Negl Trop Dis2013 December; 7(12): e2581.

Abstract

Dengue virus transmission occurs in both epidemic and endemic cycles across tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Incidence is particularly high in much of Southeast Asia, where hyperendemic transmission plagues both urban and rural populations. However, endemicity has not been established in some areas with climates that may not support year-round viral transmission. An understanding of how dengue viruses (DENV) enter these environments and whether the viruses persist in inapparent local transmission cycles is central to understanding how dengue emerges in areas at the margins of endemic transmission. Dengue is highly endemic in tropical southern Vietnam, while increasingly large seasonal epidemics have occurred in northern Viet Nam over the last decade. We have investigated the spread of DENV-1 throughout Vietnam to determine the routes by which the virus enters northern and central regions of the country. Phylogeographic analysis of 1,765 envelope (E) gene sequences from Southeast Asia revealed frequent movement of DENV between neighboring human populations and strong local clustering of viral lineages. Long-distance migration of DENV between human population centers also occurred regularly and on short time-scales, indicating human-mediated viral invasion into northern Vietnam. Human populations in southern Vietnam were found to be the primary source of DENV circulating throughout the country, while central and northern Vietnam acted as sink populations, likely due to reduced connectedness to other populations in the case of the central regions and to the influence of temperature variability on DENV replication and vector survival and competence in the north. Finally, phylogeographic analyses suggested that viral movement follows a gravity model and indicates that population immunity and physical and economic connections between populations may play important roles in shaping patterns of DENV transmission.

2. Lê Quỳnh Mai, Peter Horby, Annette Fox, Nguyễn Trần Hiển, Nguyễn Lê Khánh Hằng, Hoàng Vũ Mai Phương, Nguyễn Công Khanh, Menno D. de Jong, Rienk E. Jeeninga, H. Rogier van Doorn, Jeremy Farrar, and Heiman F.L. Wertheim. Subclinical Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Infection in Human, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. Volume 19, Number 10, October 2013.

Abstract

Laboratory-confirmed cases of subclinical infection with avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in humans are rare, and the true number of these cases is unknown. We describe the identification of a laboratory-confirmed subclinical case in a woman during an influenza A(H5N1) contact investigation in northern Vietnam.

In 2012, a debate was published in Science about the number of humans who have experienced subclinical infection with avian influenza A H5 and how this unknown denominator could affect the case-fatality rate reported by the World Health Organization (1,2). The controversy rests, to a large extent, on interpretation of serologic tests used to detect prior H5 infection and the paucity of virologically confirmed subclinical or mild cases. Here we describe a case of subclinical avian influenza A H5 infection, confirmed both virologically and serologically.
 
3. Hoàng Vũ Mai Phương, Nguyễn Cơ Thạch, Nguyễn Lê Khánh Hằng, Nguyen Thi Kim Phuong, and Lê Quỳnh MaiOseltamivir resistance among influenza viruses: surveillance in northern Viet Nam, 2009–2012.Western Pac Surveill Response J. 2013 Apr-Jun; 4(2): 25–29.
 
Abstract
 
Introduction

Antiviral resistance has been reported in seasonal influenza A viruses and avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses in Viet Nam, raising concerns about the efficacy of treatment.

 

Methods

We analysed specimens from two sources during the period 2009–2012: influenza-positive samples from influenza-like illness patients at sentinel clinics in northern Viet Nam and isolates from patients with confirmed A(H5N1) infections. Pyrosequencing was used to detect mutations: H275Y [for A(H1N1) and A(H5N1)], E119V [for A(H3N2)] and I117V [for A(H5N1)]. A neuraminidase inhibition assay was used to determine the Inhibitory Concentration 50 (IC50) values for all influenza A and B isolates.

 

Results

There were 341 influenza A positive samples identified; influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was identified most frequently (n = 215). In 2009, oseltamivir resistance was observed in 100% (19 of 19) of seasonal A(H1N1) isolates and 1.4% (3/215) of A(H1N1)pdm09 isolates. This H275Y mutation was not found in influenza subtypes A(H5N1) or A(H3N2) isolates.
 
4. Vương Đức Cường, Hoang PMNguyen HLNguyễn Trần HiểnNguyễn Cơ ThạchLê Thị ThanhDennis DTKapella BKKile JCLê Quỳnh MaiThe genetic match between vaccine strains and circulating seasonal influenza A viruses in Vietnam, 2001-2009. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013 Nov;7(6):1151-7. doi: 10.1111/irv.12038. Epub 2012 Nov 8.
 
Abstract
 
BACKGROUND:
Vietnam is currently developing domestic capability to manufacture influenza vaccines but information on the genetic and antigenic characteristics of locally circulating seasonal influenza viruses is limited. To assess the relevance of WHO recommended vaccine strains to the situation in Vietnam, we analyzed the genetic relatedness of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of seasonal influenza A viruses circulating in Vietnam from 2001 to 2009 to WHO recommended vaccine strains over the same period.
 

METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:

We sequenced the HA gene of 32 H1N1 and 44 H3N2 seasonal influenza A isolates from laboratory-based sentinel surveillance sites in Hanoi from 2001 to 2005 and from a national influenza surveillance system from 2005 to 2009. H1 and H3 HA phylogenetic trees rooted to vaccine strains A/Beijing/295/1995 (H1N1) and A/Moscow/10/1999 (H3N2), respectively, were constructed with contemporary HA sequences of isolates from neighboring countries. We found some genetic differences between seasonal influenza H3N2 viruses and three WHO influenza vaccine strains recommended for use in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for the 2001-2004 and 2007-2008 seasons and close genetic identity of circulating H3N2 strains with the recommended WHO Southern Hemisphere vaccine strains for 2004 and 2009 seasons. The genetic similarity of circulating H1N1 strains with the WHO recommended vaccine strains are described for the study period 2001-2009.
 

CONCLUSIONS:

The HA gene of seasonal influenza virus strains in Vietnam (especially influenza A/H3N2) showed varying degrees of genetic identity compared with those of the Northern or Southern Hemisphere vaccine strains recommended by WHO. The close relatedness of the HA of Vietnamese strains and contemporary strains from nearby countries indicate a good genetic match of circulating strains during study period. Greater representation of virus isolates from South East Asia in the vaccine strain selection process is desirable of influenza vaccine development in Vietnam.

 

5. Alexander NFox ALien VTDong TLee LYNguyễn Lê Khánh Hằng, Lê Quỳnh MaiHorby PDefining ELISpot cut-offs from unreplicated test and control wellsJ Immunol Methods. 2013 Jun 28;392(1-2):57-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jim.2013.02.014. Epub 2013 Mar 7.
 
Abstract
 
In the absence of replication of wells, empirical criteria for enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) positivity use fixed differences or ratios between spot forming units (SFU) counts between test and control. We propose an alternative approach which first identifies the optimally variance-stabilizing transformation of the SFU counts, based on the Bland-Altman plot of the test and control wells. The second step is to derive a positivity threshold from the difference in between-plate distribution functions of the transformed test and control SFU counts. This method is illustrated using 1309 assay results from a cohort study of influenza in Vietnam in which some, but not all, of the peptide pools have clear tendencies for SFU counts to be higher in test than control wells.
 

6. Lê Quỳnh Mai, Ha Minh Lam, Vương Đức Cường, Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Rebecca A Halpin, David E Wentworth, Nguyễn Trần HiểnLê Thị ThanhHoàng Vũ Mai Phương, Peter Horby, and Maciej F. BoniMigration and Persistence of Human Influenza A Viruses, Vietnam, 2001-2008Emerg Infect Dis. Volume 19, Number 11-November 2013.

Abstract

Understanding global influenza migration and persistence is crucial for vaccine strain selection. Using 240 new human influenza A virus whole genomes collected in Vietnam during 2001–2008, we looked for persistence patterns and migratory connections between Vietnam and other countries. We found that viruses in Vietnam migrate to and from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Cambodia, Japan, South Korea, and the United States. We attempted to reduce geographic bias by generating phylogenies subsampled at the year and country levels. However, migration events in these phylogenies were still driven by the presence or absence of sequence data, indicating that an epidemiologic study design that controls for prevalence is required for robust migration analysis. With whole-genome data, most migration events are not detectable from the phylogeny of the hemagglutinin segment alone, although general migratory relationships between Vietnam and other countries are visible in the hemagglutinin phylogeny. It is possible that virus lineages in Vietnam persisted for >1 year.

7. Sakabe STakano RNagamura-Inoue TYamashita NNidom CALê Thị Quỳnh MaiIwatsuki-Horimoto K,Kawaoka Y. Differences in cytokine production in human macrophages and in virulence in mice are attributable to the acidic polymerase protein of highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1J Infect Dis. 2013 Jan 15;207(2):262-71. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis523. Epub 2012 Oct 4.
 
Abstract
 

BACKGROUND:

The pathogenesis of influenza A virus subtype H5N1 (hereafter, "H5N1") infection in humans is not completely understood, although hypercytokinemia is thought to play a role. We previously reported that most H5N1 viruses induce high cytokine responses in human macrophages, whereas some H5N1 viruses induce only a low level of cytokine production similar to that induced by seasonal viruses.
 

METHODS:

To identify the viral molecular determinants for cytokine induction of H5N1 viruses in human macrophages, we generated a series of reassortant viruses between the high cytokine inducer A/Vietnam/UT3028II/03 clone 2 (VN3028IIcl2) and the low inducer A/Indonesia/UT3006/05 (IDN3006) and evaluated cytokine expression in human macrophages.
 

RESULTS:

Viruses possessing the acidic polymerase (PA) gene of VN3028IIcl2 exhibited high levels of hypercytokinemia-related cytokine expression in human macrophages, compared with IDN3006, but showed no substantial differences in viral growth in these cells. Further, the PA gene of VN3028IIcl2 conferred enhanced virulence in mice.
 

CONCLUSIONS:

These results demonstrate that the PA gene of VN3028IIcl2 affects cytokine production in human macrophages and virulence in mice. These findings provide new insights into the cytokine-mediated pathogenesis of H5N1 infection in humans.
 
8. Nguyễn Thu YếnGraitcer SBNguyễn Trần Hiển, Trần Như DươngPham TDLe MTTran HNBui CT,Dang DTNguyen LTUyeki TMDennis DKile JCKapella BKIuliano ADWiddowson MANguyen HTNational surveillance for influenza and influenza-like illness in Vietnam, 2006-2010. Vaccine. 2013 Sep 13;31(40):4368-74. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.07.018. Epub 2013 Jul 30.
 
Abstract
 
Influenza virus infections result in considerable morbidity and mortality both in the temperate and tropical world. Influenza surveillance over multiple years is important to determine the impact and epidemiology of influenza and to develop a national vaccine policy, especially in countries developing influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity, such as Vietnam. We conducted surveillance of influenza and influenza-like illness in Vietnam through the National Influenza Surveillance System during 2006-2010. At 15 sentinel sites, the first two patients presenting each weekday with influenza-like illness (ILI), defined as fever and cough and/or sore throat with illness onset within 3 days, were enrolled and throat specimens were collected and tested for influenza virus type and influenza A subtype by RT-PCR. De-identified demographic and provider reported subsequent hospitalization information was collected on each patient. Each site also collected information on the total number of patients with influenza-like illness evaluated per week. Of 29,804 enrolled patients presenting with influenza-like illness, 6516 (22%) were influenza positive. Of enrolled patients, 2737 (9.3%) were reported as subsequently hospitalized; of the 2737, 527 (19%) were influenza positive. Across all age groups with ILI, school-aged children had the highest percent of influenza infection (29%) and the highest percent of subsequent hospitalizations associated with influenza infection (28%). Influenza viruses co-circulated throughout most years in Vietnam during 2006-2010 and often reached peak levels multiple times during a year, when >20% of tests were influenza positive. Influenza is an important cause of all influenza-like illness and provider reported subsequent hospitalization among outpatients in Vietnam, especially among school-aged children. These findings may have important implications for influenza vaccine policy in Vietnam.
 
9. Takano RKiso MIgarashi MLê Quỳnh Mai, Sekijima MIto KTakada AKawaoka YMolecular mechanisms underlying oseltamivir resistance mediated by an I117V substitution in the neuraminidase of subtype H5N1 avian influenza A viruses. J Infect Dis. 2013 Jan 1;207(1):89-97. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis633. Epub 2012 Oct 10.
 
Abstract
 

BACKGROUND:

The neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor oseltamivir is widely used to treat patients infected with influenza viruses. An Ile-to-Val change at position 117 in influenza A virus subtype H5N1 NA (NA-I117V) confers a reduction in susceptibility to oseltamivir carboxylate. However, the in vivo relevance and molecular basis of the decreased sensitivity mediated by this mutation are poorly understood.
 

METHODS:

We created single-point-mutant viruses with 3 genetically different backgrounds (ie, 1 belonging to clade 1 and 2 belonging to clade 2.3.4) and evaluated the effects of the I117V mutation on oseltamivir susceptibility in vitro, in vivo, and in silico.
 

RESULTS:

The NA-I117V mutation conferred a slight reduction in susceptibility to oseltamivir in vitro (1.3- to 6.3-fold changes), although it did not substantially compromise NA enzymatic activity. Mice infected with I117V virus exhibited reduced susceptibility to oseltamivir and decreased survival in 2 of 3 virus pairs tested. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that I117V caused the loss of hydrogen bonds between an arginine at position 118 and the carboxyl group of oseltamivir, leading to a lower binding affinity for oseltamivir.
 

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism of NA-I117V-mediated oseltamivir resistance in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses.
 
10. Kuwata RPhan Thị Ngà, Nguyễn Thu YếnHoshino KIsawa HHiga YNguyễn Viết Hoàng, Bùi Minh Trang, Đỗ Phương Loan, Phong TVSasaki TTsuda YKobayashi MSawabe KTakagi MSurveillance of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in mosquitoes in Vietnam from 2006 to 2008Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Apr;88(4):681-8. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.12-0407. Epub 2013 Jan 28.
 

Abstract


Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection in mosquitoes was monitored in Vietnam from 2006 to 2008. A total of 15,225 mosquitoes, identified as 26 species in five genera were collected and 12,621 were grouped into 447 pools for examination of JEV infection by assays for cytopathic effects in C6/36 cells and by RT-PCR to detect flavivirus RNA. Three JEV strains were isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles collected in northern and southern Vietnam and two JEV strains were isolated from Culex vishnui Theobald collected in the highlands of Vietnam. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses, based on complete E gene nucleotide sequences, revealed that the five JEV strains were classified into the genotype I group and six amino acid differences were found in these five strains. These results indicated that multiple JEV genotype I populations are circulating countrywide in Vietnam, transmitted by bites of their Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. vishnui.

11. Nguyễn Thị Kiều AnhNguyễn Tuyết Thu, Akira Noguchi, Nguyễn Vĩnh ĐôngNgô Châu Giang, Vu Dinh Thong, Babatunde Olowokure, and Satoshi Inoue. Bat Lyssaviruses, Northern Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. Volume 20, Number 1-January 2014.

Abstract

Bats have been associated with a wide diversity of viruses, including lyssaviruses, which can cause rabies. Currently, 12 distinct species of lyssaviruses have been classified worldwide; 3 of these were isolated from bats in northern and central Asia (1). In addition, 3 putative novel bat lyssaviruses (Boklob, Ikoma, and Leida) have recently been described and are awaiting taxonomic assessment (1,2). Surveys for lyssaviruses in bat reservoirs in several countries in Southeast Asia, such as the Philippines, Cambodia, and Thailand, showed that bat lyssaviruses are naturally circulating in insectivorous and frugivorous bats (35).

12. Nguyen Kim NgaLuu Truong GiangTrần Quang HuyPham Hung VietClaudio igliaresi.Surfactant-assisted size control of hydroxyapatite nanorods for bone tissue engineering.Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. Available online 12 November 2013.

Abstract

This study presents the physicochemical characterization of the pluronic surfactant-assisted size control of hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods for bone tissue engineering (BTE). Rod-shaped HAp nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple route by hydrothermal treatment and with the assistance of the triblock co-polymer PEO20-PPO70-PEO20 (P123). The films of poly (d, l) lactic acid (PDLLA) were prepared as a substrate to spread synthesized HAp nanorods. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field electron scanning microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and composition of the HAp samples. Results showed that regular rod-shaped HAp nanoparticles (with a mean length of 120 nm and a mean width of 28 nm) were successfully produced. Moreover, synthesized HAp nanorods revealed the rapid formation of bone-like apatite with a distinctive morphology, similar to flower-like apatite; the formation was observed as early as 7 days after incubation in stimulated body fluids. This study is a positive addition to the ongoing research on the preparation of HAp nanostructures toward the development of biocompatible composite scaffolds for BTE applications.

13. Nguyễn Thanh Thủy, Trần Quang Huy, Phan Thị Ngà, Kouichi MoritaIrene DuniaLucio BenedettiA new nidovirus (NamDinh virus NDiV): Its ultrastructural characterization in the C6/36 mosquito cell line.Virology.Volume 444, Issues 1-2, September 2013, Pages 337-342.

Abstract

We describe the ultrastructure of the NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales grown in the C6/36 mosquito cell line. Uninfected and NDiV-infected cells were investigated by electron microscopy 24–48 h after infection. The results show that the viral nucleocapsid-like particles form clusters concentrated in the vacuoles, the endoplasmic reticulum, and are scattered in the cytoplasm. Mature virions of NDiV were released as budding particles on the cell surface where viral components appear to lie beneath and along the plasma membrane. Free homogeneous virus particles were obtained by ultracentrifugation on sucrose gradients of culture fluids. The size of the round-shaped particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter. This is the first study to provide information on the morphogenesis and ultrastructure of the first insect nidovirus NDiV, a missing evolutionary link in the emergence of the viruses with the largest RNA genomes.

14. Nga NKHong PTLam TDTrần Quang HuyA facile synthesis of nanostructured magnesium oxide particles for enhanced adsorption performance in reactive blue 19 removal. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2013 May 15;398:210-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2013.02.018. Epub 2013 Feb 21.


Abstract

Magnesium oxide (MgO) has been known as an excellent adsorbent for a variety of the environmentally polluted compounds. This work describes a synthesis of nanostructured MgO particles via a facile procedure by using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Powder X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric, and differential thermal gravimetry (TGA/DTG) analyses were performed to characterize the physical properties of synthesized MgO particles and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to observe their morphology, whereas nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method were used to calculate the total surface areas of the samples. The adsorptive performance was studied by batch experiments for reactive blue (RB) 19 dye removal. The results showed that as-prepared MgO particles revealed hexagonal-like shaped platelets with an average diameter in the range of 49-91 nm and a mean thickness of 19-25 nm; meanwhile, MgO CTAB-free particles are aggregated, tiny nanoparticles with an average width of 22 nm and an average length of 77 nm. The maximum adsorption capacity of as-prepared nanostructured MgO for reactive blue (RB) 19 dye was 250 mg g(-1). Furthermore, the correlation between structural characterization (mean size, pore, surface) of the samples and the adsorption performance was also discussed in details.
 
15. Le Thi TamVu Ngoc PhanHoang LanNguyễn Thanh Thủy, Trần Minh Hiền, Trần Quang HuyNguyen Van QuyHuynh Dang ChinhLe Minh TungPham Anh TuanCharacterization and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles prepared by a thermal decomposition technique. Applied Physics A. November 2013, Volume 113,Issue 3, pp 613-621.
 
Abstract
 
Recently, there has been an increasing need of efficient synthetic protocols using eco-friendly conditions including low costs and green chemicals for production of metal nanoparticles. In this work, silver nanoparticles (silver NPs) with average particle size about 10 nm were synthesized by using a thermal decomposition technique. Unlike the colloidal chemistry method, the thermal decomposition method developed has advantages such as the high crystallinity, single-reaction synthesis, and easy dispersion ability of the synthesized NPs in organic solvents. In a modified synthesis process, we used sodium oleate as a capping agent to modify the surface of silver NPs because the oleate has a C18 tail with a double bond in the middle, therefore, forming a kink which is to be effective for aggregative stability. Importantly, the as-synthesized silver NPs have demonstrated strong antimicrobial effects against various bacteria and fungi strains. Electron microscopic studies reveal physical insights into the interaction and bactericidal mechanism between the prepared silver NPs and tested bacteria in question. The observed excellent antibacterial and antifungal activity of the silver NPs make them ideal for disinfection and biomedicine applications.

16. Nguyen Van QuyTran Minh HungTrinh Quang ThongLe Anh TuanTrần Quang HuyNguyen Duc Hoa.Novel synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous Fe2O3/SiOnanocomposites for a room temperature VOC sensor.Current Applied PhysicsVolume 13, Issue 8, October 2013, Pages 1581–1588.

Abstract
 
The controlled synthesis of mesoporous silica and metal oxide nanocomposites with a highly ordered porous structure and large specific surface area for specific applications has been an attractive topic in the field of porous materials. Herein, we introduce a novel method for the fabrication of highly ordered mesoporous structured and large specific surface area Fe2O3/SiO2 nanocomposites, and consider their application in room temperature gas sensors. The mesoporous Fe2O3/SiO2 nanocomposites were synthesised by a two-step method, which combines the hydrothermal growth of Fe2O3 nanoparticles and the microemulsion phase of Brij 56 (C16EO10) surfactant as templates in instantly direct-templating synthesis. This synthesis method enables the fabrication of mesoporous Fe2O3/SiO2 nanocomposites without distortion of the ordered porous structure after calcination at high temperature. The synthesised materials were found to be efficient in a room temperature VOC sensor application, with good recovery.
 
17. Chu Van TuanTrần Quang Huy, Nguyen Van HieuMai Anh Tuan Tran TrungPolyaniline Nanowires-Based Electrochemical Immunosensor for Label Free Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus. Analytical Letters.Volume 46Issue 8, 2013.

Abstract
 
Polyaniline (PANI) conducting polymers have attracted increasing interest as a transducer material for biosensors applications. In this study, we demonstrate the use of PANI nanowires (NWs) as immobilization platforms in the configuration of an electrochemical immunosensor for label free detection of Japanese encephalitis virus. The PANI NWs were synthesized on the surface of an interdigitated platinum (Pt) microelectrode via electrochemical growth. The morphology and characteristics of the PANI NWs on the Pt microelectrode were verified by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The anti- Japanese encephalitis virus polyclonal IgG antibody was then covalently immobilized on the PANI NWs-coated Pt microelectrode by using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimde (NHS). The detection of Japanese encephalitis virus antigens was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The developed PANI NWs-based electrochemical immunosensor could detect the Japanese encephalitis virus with a detection limit below 10 ng/ml. The results from EIS analysis also indicate that when the PANI NWs were exposed to nonspecific molecules, a negligible response was found, and it did not impact to the specificity of the sensor in the virus detection. This work shows the potential use of PANI NWs in electrochemical immunosensors for label free detection of other pathogens and small biomolecules.
 
18. Dam Nhan BaLuu Tuan TaiNguyen Phuc DuongChu Van Tuan Trần Quang Huy. Electrochemical Properties of LaNi5-xGax Alloys Used as the Negative Electrodes of Ni-MH Batteries. Analytical LettersVolume 46Issue 12, 2013. pages 1897-1909.

Abstract

The effects of the substitution of nickel by gallium on the structures and the electrochemical properties of LaNi5-xGax
 (x = 0.1−0.5) alloys were studied systematically. The structure of the alloy was tested by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Electrochemical properties and battery parameters were measured by bipotentiostat and battery tester equipment. The results showed that when gallium is doped into alloys, the lattice of the LaNi5-xGax is slightly increased but retains the CaCu5 structure. Gallium has a low melting temperature. When gallium replaces nickel in the LaNi5 alloy, it covers material particles and reduces oxidation process, which leads to a longer lifetime and makes charge/discharge process more stable. The shapes of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements of all the LaNi5-xGax samples were similar, and the value increases as the substitution of Ni by Ga increases. The cyclic voltammograms of all the LaNi5-xGax samples were similar to the one of pure LaNi5. For the same Ga-doped concentration and experimental conditions, the current density Jmax and charge quantity Q of the samples were increased cycle by cycle of charge/discharge.

19. Trần Quang Huy
, Van Quy Nguyen and Anh-Tuan Le. Silver nanoparticles: synthesis, properties, toxicology, applications and perspectivesAdvances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Volume 4 Number 3.
 
Review
 
In recent years the outbreak of re-emerging and emerging infectious diseases has been a significant burden on global economies and public health. The growth of population and urbanization along with poor water supply and environmental hygiene are the main reasons for the increase in outbreak of infectious pathogens. Transmission of infectious pathogens to the community has caused outbreaks of diseases such as influenza (A/H5N1), diarrhea (Escherichia coli), cholera (Vibrio cholera), etc throughout the world. The comprehensive treatments of environments containing infectious pathogens using advanced disinfectant nanomaterials have been proposed for prevention of the outbreaks. Among these nanomaterials, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) with unique properties of high antimicrobial activity have attracted much interest from scientists and technologists to develop nanosilver-based disinfectant products. This article aims to review the synthesis routes and antimicrobial effects of Ag-NPs against various pathogens including bacteria, fungi and virus. Toxicology considerations of Ag-NPs to humans and ecology are discussed in detail. Some current applications of Ag-NPs in water-, air- and surface- disinfection are described. Finally, future prospects of Ag-NPs for treatment and prevention of currently emerging infections are discussed. 

20. 
Trần Huy Hoàng,Heiman WertheimNguyễn Bình MinhTrần Như Dương, Đặng Đức Anh, Tran Thi Lan PhuongTrinh Hong SonHidemasa IzumiyaMakoto OhnishiKeigo Shibayama and Nguyễn Trần Hiển.Carbapenem-Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains Containing New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase Isolated from Two Patients in Vietnam. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2013, 51(1):373. DOI:
 
Abstract
 
Emergence of Gram-negative pathogens carrying the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 gene (NDM-1) conveying carbapenem resistance is an urgent and global concern. After the first reported case in 2007, multiple countries around the world reported the presence of NDM-1-positive Gram-negative bacteria (1,2). This novel type of carbapenem resistance enzyme is encoded on a plasmid and easily transmitted among Gram-negative bacteria, including the human intestinal flora (1).
 
We report two strains of NDM-1-producing bacteria, Escherichia coli andKlebsiella pneumoniae, isolated from two patients admitted to a surgical hospital in Vietnam in September 2010. These patients had no history of travel outside Vietnam (Table 1). The first case was a 52-year-old man who developed fever and abdominal pain 2 months after a Bricker operation and did not respond to empirical antibiotic therapy (he did not remember the name of the antibiotic used). He was admitted to the surgical hospital in September 2010, and the urine collected at admission from his ureterostomy was positive for E. coli (>10E7 CFU) on day 3 after admission. The strain was susceptible only to fosfomycin and colistin (Table 1). The MIC of meropenem was >128 μg/ml (Table 1). The patient was treated with fosfomycin, his infection cleared, and he was discharged after 8 days.
 
21. Miyakawa M, Yoshino H, Yoshida LM, Vynnycky E, Motomura H, Tho LH, Vũ Đình Thiểm, Ariyoshi K, Đặng Đức Anh, Moriuchi H.Seroprevalence of rubella in the cord blood of pregnant women and congenital rubella incidence in Nha Trang, Vietnam.Vaccine. 2013 Sep 7.
 
Abstract
 
To investigate susceptibility to and factors associated with rubella infection among pregnant mothers and to estimate the burden of congenital rubella infection (CRI) in Vietnam where rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) is not included in the routine immunization program, we conducted a prospective cohort study in Nha Trang, Vietnam between 2009 and 2010. Rubella-specific immunoglobulin-M and immunoglobulin-G were investigated in cord blood samples by enzyme immunoassay. Corresponding clinical-epidemiological data were analyzed and the national congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) incidence was estimated using modeling. We enrolled 1988 pairs of mothers aged 17-45 years and their newborn babies. No mothers had received RCV. Multivariate analysis revealed that mothers aged 17-24 (aOR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.7-3.8) or 25-34 (1.4, 1.0-2.1) years were more likely to be susceptible than those aged 35-45 years. Overall 28.9% (574/1988, 95% CI: 26.9-30.9%) of mothers were seronegative. The CRI rate was 151 (95% CI: 0-322) per 100,000 live births. Modeling estimated that 3788 babies (95% CI: 3283-4143) were born with CRS annually in Vietnam with an overall CRS incidence of 234 (95% CI: 207-262) cases per 100,000 live births. A substantial proportion of women of childbearing age (WCBA) are at risk of rubella infection during pregnancy and this can result in a high frequency of miscarriage or burden of CRS across Vietnam. Prompt introduction of RCV into national immunization program with catch-up vaccination to children and WCBA will reduce CRI in Vietnam.
 
22. Lamontagne DS, Vũ Đình Thiểm, Huong VM, Tang Y, Neuzil KMImmunogenicity of quadrivalent HPV vaccine among girls 11 to 13 Years of age vaccinated using alternative dosing schedules: results 29 to 32 months after third dose. J Infect Dis. 2013 Oct 15;208(8):1325-34.
 
Abstract
 

BACKGROUND:

Immune response to quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine delivered at 0, 2, and 6 months in young adolescent females plateaus around 24 months after immunization. Antibody levels >24 months postvaccination using extended dosing schedules is unknown.
 

METHODS:

We conducted a follow-up immunogenicity study of adolescent girls in Vietnam who participated in a noninferiority trial to investigate whether immune responses using 3 alternative dosing schedules (0, 3, 9 months; 0, 6, 12 months; or 0, 12, 24 months) are noninferior to the standard schedule at >2 years after immunization.
 

RESULTS:

Quadrivalent HPV vaccine immunogenicity delivered on 3 alternative dosing schedules was noninferior for types 6, 11, 16, and 18 at 32 months post-dose 3 compared to the standard schedule. Pre-dose 3 antibody levels for the 0, 12, 24 month schedule were similar to those measured 32-months post-dose 3.
 

CONCLUSIONS:

We found similar antibody concentrations ≥29 months after 3 doses of HPV vaccine regardless of dose-timing, and extended schedules do not produce inferior immune responses. Our findings also suggested that 2 doses of HPV vaccine delivered at 0 and 12 months might afford similar protection. Evidence supporting dosing flexibility could be important for national HPV vaccination policies.
 
23. Yoshida LM, Suzuki MNguyễn Hiền Anh, Le MN, Vũ Đình Thiểm, Yoshino H, Schmidt WP, Nguyen TT, Le HT, Morimoto K, Moriuchi H, Đặng Đức Anh, Ariyoshi KRespiratory syncytial virus: co-infection and paediatric lower respiratory tract infectionsEur Respir J. 2013 Aug;42(2):461-9. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00101812. Epub 2013 May 3.
 
Abstract
 

Comprehensive population-based data on the role of respiratory viruses in the development of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) remain unclear. We investigated the incidence and effect of single and multiple infections with respiratory viruses on the risk of LRTIs in Vietnam. Population-based prospective surveillance and a case-control study of hospitalised paediatric patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) were conducted from April 2007 through to March 2010. Healthy controls were randomly recruited from the same community. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected and tested for 13 respiratory viruses using multiplex PCRs. 1992 hospitalised ARI episodes, including 397 (19.9%) with LRTIs, were enrolled. Incidence of hospitalised LRTIs among children aged <24 months was 2171.9 per 100 000 (95% CI 1947.9-2419.7). The majority of ARI cases (60.9%) were positive for at least one virus. Human rhinovirus (24.2%), respiratory syncytial virus (20.1%) and influenza A virus (12.0%) were the most common and 9.5% had multiple-viral infections. Respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus infections independently increased the risk of LRTIs. Respiratory syncytial virus further increased the risk, when co-infected with human rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus and parainfluenza virus-3 but not with influenza A virus. The case-control analysis revealed that respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A virus increased the risk of ARI hospitalisation but not human rhinovirus. Respiratory syncytial virus is the leading pathogen associated with risk of ARI hospitalisation and LRTIs in Vietnam.


24. 
Do Thi Thanh Toan, Wenbiao Hu, Phạm Quang Thái, Luu Ngoc Hoat, Pamela Wright, Pim MartensHot spot detection and spatio-temporal dispersion of dengue fever in Hanoi, VietnamGlob Health ActionVol 6 (2013) incl Supplements.
 
Abstract
 
Introduction: Dengue fever (DF) in Vietnam remains a serious emerging arboviral disease, which generates significant concerns among international health authorities. Incidence rates of DF have increased significantly during the last few years in many provinces and cities, especially Hanoi. The purpose of this study was to detect DF hot spots and identify the disease dynamics dispersion of DFover the period between 2004 and 2009 in Hanoi, Vietnam.
 
Methods: Daily data on DF cases and population data for each postcode area of Hanoi between January 1998 and December 2009 were obtained from the Hanoi Center for Preventive Health and the General Statistic Office of Vietnam. Moran’s I statistic was used to assess the spatial autocorrelation of reported DF. Spatial scan statistics and logistic regression were used to identify spacetime clusters and dispersion of DF.
 
Results: The study revealed a clear trend of geographic expansion of DF transmission in Hanoi through the study periods (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.34). The spatial scan statistics showed that 6/14 (42.9%) districts in Hanoi had significant cluster patterns, which lasted 29 days and were limited to a radius of 1,000 m. The study also demonstrated that most DF cases occurred between June and November, during which the rainfall and temperatures are highest.
 

Conclusions: There is evidence for the existence of statistically significant clusters of DF in Hanoi, and that the geographical distribution of DF has expanded over recent years. This finding provides a foundation for further investigation into the social and environmental factors responsible for changing disease patterns, and provides data to inform program planning for DF control.

25. Trần Văn ĐìnhAndy H. Lee, Thuy B. Au, Nguyễn Thành Chung  and Dong V. Hoang. Reliability and validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Short Form for older adults in Vietnam. Health Promot J Austr. 2013 Aug;24(2):126-31.

Abstract

Issues addressed: The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was developed as a global standard questionnaire to monitor physical activity across diverse populations. In Vietnam, the IPAQ–Short Form (SF) has only been tested for reliability and validity among adolescents. The present study determined test–retest reliability and criterion validity of the IPAQ-SF for older Vietnamese adults aged 60–75 years.

Methods: In all, 197 participants were recruited from the community. Subjects were requested to wear a pedometer, record daily steps and list all physical activities in a log-book for 7 consecutive days. Those who completed the requirements were interviewed using the IPAQ-SF (IPAQ1). A repeated interview was arranged 3 days later (IPAQ2).

Results: The final sample consisted of 150 participants (75 men, 75 women) with mean (± s.d.) age of 66.8 ± 5.1 years. The intraclass correlation coefficients between IPAQ1 and IPAQ2 exceeded 0.80 for all physical activity domains and sitting, indicating good reliability. However, fair to weak validity was evident between IPAQ1 measures and activity log and pedometer readings, with Spearman correlations of 0.46 and 0.20, respectively.

Conclusions: The Vietnamese translated version of IPAQ-SF appears to be a reliable and reasonably valid instrument to assess and monitor habitual physical activity for older adults in Vietnam.

26. Lay-Myint YoshidaNguyễn Hiền Anh, Kiwao Watanabe,  Ai Thi Thuy NguyenVũ Thị Thu Hường,Hiroshi YoshinoMotoi SuzukiKensuke TakahashiThoHuu LeHiroyuki MoriuchPaul E. KilgoreKaren Edmond,Kim MulhollandĐặng Đức AnhKoya AriyoshiIncidence of Radiologically-Confirmed Pneumonia andHaemophilus influenzae Type b Carriage before Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine Introduction in Central Vietnam.The Journal of Pediatrics Volume 163, Issue 1, Supplement, Pages S38-S43, July 2013.

Abstract

Objectives

To determine the incidence of radiologically-confirmed pneumonia (RCP) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) carriage in central Vietnam as a baseline data before Hib conjugate vaccine introduction.

 

Study design

In the context of ongoing population-based prospective, hospitalized acute respiratory infection surveillance study, a cross-sectional Hib carriage study was conducted among 1000 children < 5 years of age living in NhaTrang, Vietnam in June 2010, 1 month before the nationwide introduction of Hib conjugate vaccine in Vietnam.
 

Results

The incidence of RCP hospitalizations among children < 5 years of age was 3.3 per 1000 children. The highest incidence was observed among children 12-23 month age group (8.3 per 1000). Haemophilus influenzae carriage was detected in 37% of the children and Hib carriage rate was 3%. Eighty-two percent of the Haemophilus influenzae had TEM β-lactamase resistance gene. The presence of 6 or more family members was associated with an increased rate of Hib carriage (P = .04).
 

Conclusions

Incidence of RCP and Hib carriage in this cross-sectional survey are lower compared with other studies. Continued surveillance for invasive Hib disease and sequential Hib carriage surveys are needed to support future assessments of the impact of Hib conjugate vaccine in Vietnam.
 
27. Nguyễn Vân Trang, Le Nguyen NT, Dao HT, Ho VL, Tran DT, Loewen J, Jiang J, Jiang B, Parashar U, Đặng Đức Anh, Patel MMIncidence and Epidemiology of Intussusception among Infants in Ho Chi Minh City, VietnamJ Pediatr. 2013 Nov 14. pii: S0022-3476(13)01234-1.
 

Abstract


OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate rates of intussusception hospitalization among infants in Vietnam before the introduction of rotavirus vaccine.
 

STUDY DESIGN:

Between 2009 and 2011, we identified intussusception hospitalizations among infants using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification code K56.1 at 2 large pediatric hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam that treat most of the intussusception cases in the city. We reviewed all medical records to confirm a Brighton level 1 case definition for intussusception.
 

RESULTS:

We identified a total of 869 intussusception cases in Ho Chi Minh City during the 3-year study period, for an annual rate of 296 per 100000 infants. The mean age of intussusception was 37 weeks (8.6 months), with <2% of the cases occurring before age 15 weeks. Cases of intussusception were observed year-round in these hospitals with no evident seasonal pattern. Ultrasonography was used to diagnose most cases (97%), and reduction was performed by air enema in >95% of the cases, with only 1% of cases at 1 hospital and 5% at the other hospital requiring surgical intervention. Ultrasound diagnosis was confirmed by an independent radiologist in 94% of a randomly selected group of intussusception cases at 1 of the 2 hospitals. No mortality was reported.
 

CONCLUSION:

Vietnam has a substantially higher rate of intussusception in children aged >15 weeks compared with most other regions of the world. Most of our cases were diagnosed by ultrasound, and only a small proportion required surgical intervention with no fatalities, suggesting that the higher rates may be related in part to better and earlier detection of intussusception.
 
28. Leuridan EHoang TT, Đặng Đức Anh,  Van Damme PPertussis vaccination and pregnancy. Clin Infect Dis.2013 Aug;57(3):471-2.
 
Abstract not available.
 
29. Kensuke Takahashi, Motoi Suzuki, Le Nhat Minh, Nguyễn Hiền Anh, Luu Thi Minh Huong, Tran Vo Vinh Son, Phan The Long, Nguyen Thi Thuy Ai, Le Huu ThoKonosuke Morimoto, Paul E Kilgore, Đặng Đức Anh, Koya Ariyoshi and Lay Myint Yoshida. The incidence and aetiology of hospitalised community-acquired pneumonia among Vietnamese adults: a prospective surveillance in Central Vietnam. BMC Infectious Diseases 2013, 13:296  

Abstract

 

Background

Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) including Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infectious disease that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The patterns of aetiological pathogens differ by region and country. Special attention must be paid to CAP in Southeast Asia (SEA), a region facing rapid demographic transition. Estimates burden and aetiological patterns of CAP are essential for the clinical and public health management. The purposes of the study are to determine the incidence, aetiological pathogens, clinical pictures and risk factors of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the Vietnamese adult population.
 

Methods

A prospective surveillance for hospitalised adult CAP was conducted in Khanh Hoa Province, Central Vietnam. All adults aged ≥15 years with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) admitted to a provincial hospital from September 2009 to August 2010 were enrolled in the study. Patients were classified into CAP and non-pneumonic LRTI (NPLRTI) according to the radiological findings. Bacterial pathogens were identified from sputum samples by the conventional culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, andMoraxella catarrhalis; 13 respiratory viruses were identified from nasopharyngeal specimens by PCR.
 

Results

Of all 367 LRTI episodes examined, 174 (47%) were CAP. Older age, the presence of underlying respiratory conditions, and higher index score of smoking were associated with CAP. The one-year estimated incidence of hospitalised adult CAP in our study population was 0.81 per 1,000 person years. The incidence increased considerably with age and was highest among the elderly. The case fatality proportion of hospitalised CAP patients was 9.8%. Among 286 sputum samples tested for bacterial PCR, 79 (28%) were positive for H. influenzae, and 65 (23%) were positive for S.pneumoniae. Among 357 samples tested for viral PCR, 73 (21%) were positive for respiratory viruses; influenza A (n=32, 9%) was the most common.
 

Conclusions

The current adult CAP incidence in Vietnam was relatively low; this result was mainly attributed to the young age of our study population.
 
30. James Jiang, Baoming Jiang, Umesh Parashar, Nguyễn Vân Trang, Julie Bines, Manish M. Patel mail.Childhood Intussusception: A Literature Review. PLoS One. 2013 Jul 22;8(7).
 
Abstract
 

Background

Postlicensure data has identified a causal link between rotavirus vaccines and intussusception in some settings. As rotavirus vaccines are introduced globally, monitoring intussusception will be crucial for ensuring safety of the vaccine programs.
 

Methods

To obtain updated information on background rates and clinical management of intussusception, we reviewed studies of intussusception in children <18 years of age published since 2002. We assessed the incidence of intussusception by month of life among children <1 year of age, seasonality, method of diagnosis, treatment, and case-fatality.
 

Findings

We identified 82 studies from North America, Asia, Europe, Oceania, Africa, Eastern Mediterranean, and Central & South America that reported a total of 44,454 intussusception events. The mean incidence of intussusception was 74 per 100,000 (range: 9–328) among children <1 year of age, with peak incidence among infants 5–7 months of age. No seasonal patterns were observed. A radiographic modality was used to diagnose intussusception in over 95% of the cases in all regions except Africa where clinical findings or surgery were used in 65% of the cases. Surgical rates were substantially higher in Africa (77%) and Central and South America (86%) compared to other regions (13–29%). Case-fatality also was higher in Africa (9%) compared to other regions (<1%). The primary limitation of this review relates to the heterogeneity in intussusception surveillance across different regions.
 

Conclusion

This review of the intussusception literature from the past decade provides pertinent information that should facilitate implementation of intussusception surveillance for monitoring the postlicensure safety of rotavirus vaccines.
 
31. Nguyễn Trần Hiển, Minh Huong Vu, Nguyễn Văn Cường, Nguyễn Liên Hương, Kohei TodaTuyet Nga Nguyen, Sang Dao, Kathleen A. Wannemuehler, Karen A. HennesseyA reduction in chronic hepatitis B virus infection prevalence among children in Vietnam demonstrates the importance of vaccination. Vaccine. 2014 Jan 3;32(2):217-22.
 
Abstract
 

Background

Vietnam has high endemic hepatitis B virus infection with >8% of adults estimated to have chronic infection. Hepatitis B vaccine was first introduced in the national childhood immunization program in 1997 in high-risk areas, expanded nationwide in 2002, and included birth dose vaccination in 2003. This survey aimed to assess the impact of Vietnam's vaccination programme by estimating the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among children born during 2000–2008.
 

Methods

This nationally representative cross-sectional survey sampled children based on a stratified three-stage cluster design. Demographic and vaccination data were collected along with a whole blood specimen that was collected and interpreted in the field with a point-of-care HBsAg test.
 

Results

A total of 6,949 children were included in the survey analyses. The overall HBsAg prevalence among surveyed children was 2.70% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.20–3.30). However, HBsAg prevalence was significantly higher among children born in 2000–2003 (3.64%) compared to children born 2007–2008 (1.64%) (prevalence ratio (PR: 2.22, CI 1.55–3.18)). Among all children included in the survey, unadjusted HBsAg prevalence among children with ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine including a birth dose (1.75%) was significantly lower than among children with ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine but lacked a birth dose (2.98%) (PR: 1.71, CI: 1.00–2.91) and significantly lower than among unvaccinated children (3.47%) (PR: 1.99, CI: 1.15–3.45). Infants receiving hepatitis B vaccine >7 days after birth had significantly higher HBsAg prevalence (3.20%) than those vaccinated 0-1 day after birth (1.52%) (PR: 2.09, CI: 1.27–3.46).
 

Conclusion

Childhood chronic HBV infection prevalence has been markedly reduced in Vietnam due to vaccination. Further strengthening of timely birth dose vaccination will be important for reducing chronic HBV infection prevalence of under 5 children to <1%, a national and Western Pacific regional hepatitis B control goal.
 

32. Nguyễn Lê HảiCharpentier CNguyen Nde Truchis PMolina JMRuxrungtham KDelaugerre C.Longitudinal analysis of integrase N155H variants in heavily treated patients failing raltegravir-based regimens. HIV Med. 2013 Feb;14(2):85-91


Abstract

 

OBJECTIVES:

The mechanism of raltegravir (RAL)-resistant evolutions has not already been elucidated. Because the emergence of RAL resistance is usually initiated by the N155H mutant, we assessed the role of minor N155H-mutated variants in circulating RNA and archived DNA in five heavily treated patients experiencing long-term RAL therapy failure and harbouring three different resistance profiles determined by standard genotyping.
 

METHODS:

Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) was used to detect N155H mutants in longitudinal stored plasma and whole-blood samples before, during and after RAL-based regimens in five patients infected with the HIV-1 B subtype.
 

RESULTS:

No minor N155H-mutated variant was found by AS-PCR in either plasma or whole-blood samples collected at baseline and after RAL withdrawal in any of the five patients. During RAL failure, the mutation N155H was detected at different levels in three patients displaying the N155H pathway and gradually declined when the double mutant Q148H+G140S was selected in one patient. In two patients with the Q148H resistance pathway, no N155H variant was identified by AS-PCR in either viral RNA or DNA.
 

CONCLUSIONS:

The N155H mutation present at various levels from minority to majority showed no relationship with the three RAL-associated resistance profiles, suggesting that this mutant may not play a role in determining different resistance profiles. Moreover, pre-existing N155H is very infrequent and, if selected during RAL failure, the N155H mutant disappears quickly after RAL withdrawal.
 
33. Li LNguyễn Trần Hiển, Lin CNguyễn Anh Tuấn, Lê Anh Tuấn, Farmer SCDetels R.An Intervention to Improve Mental Health and Family Well-Being of Injecting Drug Users and Family Members inVietnam. Psychol Addict Behav. 2013 Sep 30.

 

Abstract
 
Family plays an important role in the lives of injecting drug users (IDUs) in Vietnam. This study examined the preliminary outcomes of an interventiontargeting IDUs and their family members in Vietnam. Eighty-three families, including 83 IDUs and 83 family members, were recruited from 4 communes in Phú Tḥo Province, Vietnam. The 4 communes were randomized to either an intervention condition or a standard care condition. The IDUs and their family members in the intervention condition completed 4 group sessions, with the aims to improve their mental health and familyrelations and to promote positive behavioral change. The intervention effect was evaluated at baseline and 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments. A significant reduction in depressive symptoms and improvement in family functioning were reported for IDUs in the intervention group compared with those in the standard care group. The family members in the intervention group reported better coping skills at 3 months, fewer depressive symptoms at 6 months, and improved family function at both 3 and 6 months compared with those in the standard care group. However, no significantintervention effect was observed for IDUs in terms of drug-using behavior. This study demonstrates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of anintervention that simultaneously targets IDUs and their family members in Vietnam. Study findings highlight the importance of including family members and enhancing their role in drug use intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
 
34. Rachel M. Smith mail, Nguyễn Anh TuấnHoàng Thị Thanh HàPhạm Hồng Thắng, Cao Thuy, Truong Xuan Lien,  Hien T. Bui, Thai Hung Le, Bruce Struminger, Michelle S. McConnell, Robyn Neblett Fanfair, Benjamin J. Park, Julie R. Harris. Prevalence of Cryptococcal Antigenemia and Cost-Effectiveness of a Cryptococcal Antigen Screening Program – Vietnam. PLoS One. 2013 Apr 23;8(4).

Abstract

 

Background

An estimated 120,000 HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM) cases occur each year in South and Southeast Asia; early treatment may improve outcomes. The World HealthOrganization (WHO) recently recommended screening HIV-infected adults with CD4<100 cells/mm3 for serum cryptococcal antigen (CrAg), a marker of early cryptococcal infection, in areas of high CrAg prevalence. We evaluated CrAg prevalence and cost-effectiveness of this screening strategy in HIV-infected adults in northern and southern Vietnam.
 

Methods

Serum samples were collected and stored during 2009–2012 in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, from HIV-infected, ART-naïve patients presenting to care in 12 clinics. All specimens from patients with CD4<100 cells/mm3 were tested using the CrAg lateral flow assay. We obtained cost estimates from laboratory staff, clinicians and hospital administrators in Vietnam, and evaluated cost-effectiveness using WHO guidelines.
 

Results

Sera from 226 patients [104 (46%) from North Vietnam and 122 (54%) from the South] with CD4<100 cells/mm3 were available for CrAg testing. Median CD4 count was 40 (range 0–99) cells/mm3. Nine (4%; 95% CI 2–7%) specimens were CrAg-positive. CrAg prevalence was higher in South Vietnam (6%; 95% CI 3–11%) than in North Vietnam (2%; 95% CI 0–6%) (p = 0.18). Cost per life-year gained under a screening scenario was $190, $137, and $119 at CrAg prevalences of 2%, 4% and 6%, respectively.
 

Conclusion

CrAg prevalence was higher in southern compared with northern Vietnam; however, CrAg screening would be considered cost-effective by WHO criteria in both regions. Public health officials in Vietnam should consider adding cryptococcal screening to existing national guidelines for HIV/AIDS care.

35. Ataru Tsuzuki1, Toshihiko Sunahara1, Vũ Trọng DượcNguyễn Hoàng Lê, Yukiko Higa1, Trần Vũ Phongand Noboru Minakawa1,3. Efect oF housing factors on infestation by Aedes albopictus skuse in urban Hanoi city, VietnamSoutheast asia J Trop Med Public Health. Vol 44 No.6 November 2013.

Abstract not available.

36. Koma TYoshimatsu KYasuda SPLi TAmada TShimizu KIsozumi RMai LTHoa NTNguyen VYamashiro THasebe FArikawa J. A survey of rodent-borne pathogens carried by wild Rattus spp. in Northern Vietnam. Epidemiol Infect. 2013 Sep;141(9):

Abstract
 
To examine the prevalence of human pathogens carried by rats in urban areas in Hanoi and Hai Phong, Vietnam, we live-trapped 100 rats in January 2011 and screened them for a panel of bacteria and viruses. Antibodies against Leptospira interrogans (22·0%), Seoul virus (14·0%) and rat hepatitis E virus (23·0%) were detected in rats, but antibodies against Yersinia pestis were not detected. Antibodies against L. interrogans and Seoul virus were found only in adult rats. In contrast, antibodies to rat hepatitis E virus were also found in juvenile and sub-adult rats, indicating that the transmission mode of rat hepatitis E virus is different from that of L. interrogans and Seoul virus. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of the S and M segments of Seoul viruses found in Rattus norvegicus showed that Seoul viruses from Hai Phong and Hanoi formed different clades. Human exposure to these pathogens has become a significant public health concern.
 
37. Lee AHPasalich MSu DTang LTran VDBinns CW. Mushroom intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in southern Chinese women. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2013 Oct;23(8):1400-5.

Abstract
 

OBJECTIVE:

This study aimed to investigate the association between mushroom consumption and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in southernChinese women.
 

METHODS:

A hospital-based case-control study was undertaken in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, from 2006 to 2008. Participants were 500 incident patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and 500 controls, with a mean (SD) age of 59 (6) years. Information on habitual mushroomconsumption was obtained by face-to-face interview using a validated and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between mushroom intake and the ovarian cancer risk.
 

RESULTS:

The patients with ovarian cancer consumed less mushrooms (mean [SD], 28.48 [37.45] g/d) than did controls (mean [SD], 30.75 [41.85] g/d). Apparent reductions in cancer risk were found at high levels of intake, especially for the common white button mushroom with adjusted odds ratios 0.68 (95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.89) for women consuming more than 2 g per day relative to those who consume less than that (P = 0.005). Decreases in risk at high levels of intake were also observed for serous and mucinous subtypes of epithelial ovarian tumors.
 

CONCLUSIONS:

Intake of mushrooms, particularly white button mushroom, seemed to be inversely associated with the incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer in southern Chinese women.
 

38. Takamatsu Y, Uchida L, Phan Thị Ngà, Okamoto K, Nabeshima T, Đặng Thu Thảo, Hai do T, Tuyet NT, Duc HM, Luat le X, Hasebe F, Morita KAn approach for differentiating echovirus 30 and Japanese encephalitis virus infections in acute meningitis/encephalitis: a retrospective study of 103 cases in VietnamVirol J. 2013 Sep 11;10:280.


Abstract
 

BACKGROUND:

In recent decades, Echovirus 30 (E30) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) have been reported to be the common causative agents of acute meningitis among patients in South East Asia. An E30 outbreak in Vietnam in 2001-2002 gained our interest because the initial clinical diagnosis of infected patients was due to JEV infection. There are few clinical insights regarding E30 cases, and there are no reports comparing E30 and JEV acute meningitis/encephalitis cases based on clinical symptoms and case histories. We therefore aimed to identify reliable clinical methods to differentiate E30 and JEV acute meningitis/encephalitis.
 

METHODS:

A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted to compare E30 and JEV acute meningitis/encephalitis cases. We collected and analyzed the clinical records of 43 E30 confirmed cases (E30 group) and 60 JEV confirmed cases (JEV group). Clinical data were compared between the E30 and the JEV groups. Differences of clinical parameters were analyzed by certain statistical tests.
 

RESULTS:

Fever, headache, and vomiting were the most common symptoms in both the E30 and the JEV groups. Combined symptoms of headache and vomiting and the triad of symptoms of fever, headache, and vomiting were observed in more patients in the E30 group (E30 vs. JEV: 19% vs. 0%, p<0.001; 74% vs. 27%, p<0.001, respectively). On the other hand, strong neurological symptoms such as seizure (5% vs. 73%, p<0.001) and altered consciousness (12% vs. 97%, p<0.001) were manifested primarily in the JEV group. CSF leukocytosis was observed predominantly in the E30 group (80 vs. 18 cells/μL, p=0.003), whereas decreasing CSF sugar level was observed predominantly in the JEV group (58.7 vs. 46.9 mg/dL, p<0.001).
 

CONCLUSION:

Fever, headache, vomiting, absence of neurological symptoms (seizure, altered consciousness), and presence of CSF leukocytosis are important parameters to consider in differentiating E30 from JEV cases during early infection. Then, proper measures can be adopted immediately to prevent the spread of the disease in the affected areas.

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